To explain your own facts to these people, you have to reach them in their own language, customs and usage, and traditions. It shows that the state recognizes that it has to do something. Restrictions raise transaction costs and make entry into prohibited areas attractive only to those ideologically committed or those able to flout the prohibition: in this case, a radio station operated by the Turkish Army and a satellite television station, MED TV,whose programming is largely sympathetic to the PKK and which regularly provides a forum for the PKK leader, Mr. An ethnic Kurdish businessman from Diyarbak1r commented that,.
You have to change the laws.
RTUK, other laws. The lack of Kurdish broadcasting is not a question of economics. Local businessmen would open Kurdish-language newspapers, radio stations, and television stations. It is natural, the case of meeting a demand in a capitalist economy. People would do market research. I would want them to broadcast all parts of our people, it would be better.
Only a handful of small weekly newspapers or journals publish entirely or partly in Kurdish despite the absence of legal restrictions. None of the mainstream newspapers do. It wants to close Kurdish publications. Those that produce culture and literature survive to a greater extent. But such newspapers do exist. The vast majority of confiscation orders are because of articles written in Turkish, not Kurdish. The paper is printed both abroad and within the country because of confiscations.
Of the various issues of Hevi , only three to date have not been confiscated; the other thirty-six have been confiscated by DGM under Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law or Article Of all the issues we have published, in our various incarnations, only fifty were not confiscated. Confiscation decisions are strange. Often criminal cases are opened in connection with the confiscation order. Book publishing in Kurdish also seems to avoid legal prosecution when compared with Turkish-language publishing done by the same publishing house. All were in Turkish. They try not to open a legal case against the ones in Kurdish.
We publish poetry, novels, and stories. He asked me to translate a few and bring them to him. GAOR, 47th Sess.
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Canada , Comm. The last attempt to ascertain information concerning ethnicity and religion occurred in the early s. After data for one province was released, however, the study was repressed. See Peter Alfred Andrews, ed. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, , pp. Large numbers of people have moreover purposively crossed what they perceived as the major ethnic boundary, not only individually, as is wont to happen virtually everywhere, but in many cases collectively. The Ottoman state was based on Islamic principles, not nationalism. With the exception of the oil-rich Mosul province, the Republic of Turkey fits largely in the borders envisioned by the National Pact.
Among other things, the treaty envisioned a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby the majority of Turks in Greece and the majority of Greeks in Turkey would move to their nominal country of origin. The treaty, however, allowed the Greeks of Istanbul and the Turks of Western Thrace to remain in their homes and granted them certain linguistic, cultural, and religious rights outlined in Articles of the treaty. Consequently, the Turkish state acknowledged no minorities aside from the non-Muslim minorities Greeks, Jews, and Armenians mentioned in the treaty.
In a particular country, theknowledge of some languages other than the official one or [the fact of those languages] being spoken from place to place does not create a minority.
The banning of Kurdish as a language of publication occurred almost at the same time as the switch to a modified Latin alphabet. Parliament passed a law to that effect on November 1, , to be implemented as of January 1, According to the census, the literacy rate in Turkey was 9 percent. See Ahmad, p. In the s great efforts were expended to prove that Kurds were Turks Oddly enough, all three Turkish constitutions have conspicuously avoided linkingTurkish ethnicity with citizenship.
Taurus, , p. The author of this report was told a similar story in by a Turkish friend who had completed military service in near Erzincan, a mixed Turkish-Kurdish area. In the spring of , the intellectual journal Birikim devoted a whole issue to ethnic minorities in Turkey, Etnik Kimlik ve Az1nl1klar Ethnic Identity and Minorities , No. In , a group of individuals tried to register officially as the Sheik Said Foundation, in honor of a Kurdish tribal leader who led a revolt in The contents of the directive were not revealed to Mr.
Beyaz or his lawyer. In April , Mr. I am a Kurd. Oddly enough, the now-abolished Law No. Y1ld1r1m also stated that 61 percent of women in the region were illiterate.
Amal Nasser el-Din
In a ground breaking survey of Turkish Kurds released in , The sample consisted of 1, individuals Diyarbak1r, ; Batman, ; Mardin, ; Adana, ; Mersin, ; Antalya, Sixty-seven percent of midwives and nurses stated that they had language problems even when administering simple procedures, like vaccinations. Economic realities, however, played a role. Most acknowledged that neither Turkish nor Kurdish would be sufficient as a language in the global economy.
Would they let their kids be unemployed? Each new party was formed as the previous one was closed by the Constitutional Court. In addition, members of these parties often faced criminal proceedings for free expression that is protected under international law. Four are still imprisoned. When DEP was closed it had thirteen deputies in Parliament; eight, as mentioned, were put on trial, and five fled abroad. The democratic and rational approach requires that political parties seeking to represent different ethnic and religious identities, on the condition that they are not separatist, should not be excluded from the system but included.
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The prosecutor alleges that the party has violated the preamble and Articles 2 ,3, 14, 68, and of the constitution as well as Articles 78, 80, 81, and 89 of the Political Parties Law. See pp. In Europe, there is a new movement: protecting regionalism, protecting difference, but then joining together. Look at Spain and Catalonia There has been a serious change in the world. The bipolar world is over. The European Union gives importance to minorities and to regional differences. Whether Turkey wants to or not they are affected The benefit of closing our party is not understandable by rationality.
Powers in the state want a hard-line approach If they were serious, they would not interfere with democratic, non-violent movements like ours that defend the unity of the state Cited in the indictment, pp.
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Italics added. The prosecutor is in error by stating that there are no prohibited languages. Restrictions still exist in broadcasting and education.
No language prohibited by law shall be used in the expression and dissemination of thought. Any written or printed documents, phonograph records, magnetic or video tapes, and other means of expression used in contravention of this provision shall be seized by a duly issued decision of a judge or, in cases where delay is deemed prejudicial, by the competent authority designated by law. State television has nightly newscasts in English, German, and French, and any number of foreign language channels are available through cable television. Based in Diyarbak1r, the station closed in under both political and economic pressure.
The logic behind the statement is that those most in need of a Kurdish-language paper, i. The party is outlawed in Turkey, and its leader lives in exile. Though not legally recognized as such, there have been various incarnations of the paper. Previous papers include the following: Deng Voice , December ; Azadi Freedom , , published issues then closed down by court order; Deng Azadi Voice of Freedom , forty-two published, then closed; Ronahi, , seventy-two published, closed.
He has since left Turkey, and the paper was closed by court order. He fled abroad as well, and the paper was closed. As of January , the publication was confiscated three times and there were five cases pending against it.
For other uses, see Alawi disambiguation. Zulfiqar , a stylised representation of the sword of Ali, is an important symbol for Alawites. Part of a series on Shia Islam. Beliefs and practices. Holy days. Branches of Shia Islam. Ahl al-Kisa.